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5. Memory Organization And Data Hierarchy Explained

Getting Started with Java

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This video talks about what the computer is made of internally. A computer has a CPU or central processing unit which has an ALU or arithmetic logic unit that does all the calculations. The input unit is responsible for taking input from the user and involves devices such as mouse, keyboard, webcam and trackpad. The output unit is responsible for giving outputs or showing the end result of some action to the user and involves devices such as monitor and printer. The bus connects all the units together and lets them exchange data with each other. The primary memory RAM stores information which is erased when the computer shuts down whereas the secondary storage memory or hard drive can retain data even when the computer is shut down. Data is stored in a binary format which means the computer can only store 0s and 1s. To store letters, the computer converts each letter into a number and then stores the number in binary format. One of the most popular tables used to convert letters to numbers is known as Unicode. A collection of letters constitutes a field and a collection of fields constitutes a record. A file is a collection of records. You can instruct a computer to perform some calculation and this act is known as programming. Computers only understand binary instructions which are known as machine level language and are specific to a particular machine. A slightly more human friendly way of writing instructions would be achieved using something known as Assembly language. High level programming languages are lines of text that look very friendly to humans and computers have to convert them into machine level languages with the help of a tool known as a compiler.

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